ShARL Publications

All lab publications are listed below. If you are not able to access the pdf from the link, please e-mail Elizabeth Milne at or Megan Freeth at, and we will send a (p)reprint if copyright allows.

Morgan, E., Smith D., & Freeth, M. (in press). Gaze Cueing, Mental States and the Effect of Autistic Traits. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics

Freeth, M., Al-Jawahiri, R., Stokes, L., & Smith, H. (2021). Speech, language and communication phenotyping in rare genetic syndromes: Commentary on Speech and language deficits are central to SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder. European Journal of Human Genetics, 29, 166-167.

Dugdale, A., Thompson, A., Leedham, A., Beail, N., & Freeth, M. (2021). Intense connection and love: The experiences of autistic mothers Autism, 25 (7), 1973-1984

Morgan, E., Foulsham, T., & Freeth, M. (2021). Sensitivity to Social Agency in Autistic Adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51, 3245-3255

Lane, C., Tatton-Brown, K., & Freeth, M. (2020). Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome: cognitive and behavioural phenotypes Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 62 (8), 93-998.

Al-Jawahiri, R., Jones, M., & Milne, E. (2020). Spontaneous neural activity relates to psychiatric traits in 16p11. 2 CNV carriers: An analysis of EEG spectral power and multiscale entropy Journal of Psychiatric Research

Martinez, A. P., Wickham, S., Rowse, G., Milne, E., & Bentall, R. P. (2020). Robust association between autistic traits and psychotic-like experiences in the adult general population: epidemiological study from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey and replication with the 2014 APMS. Psychological Medicine, 1-7. 

Martinez, A. P., Dorahy, M. J., Nesbit, A., Palmer, R., & Middleton, W. (2020). Delusional beliefs and their characteristics: A comparative study between Dissociative Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 131, 263-268.

Beaton, D.M., Sirois, F. & Milne, E. (2020) Self-compassion and Perceived Criticism in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness

Freeth, M., Morgan, E., Bugembe, P., & Brown, A. (2020) How accurate are autistic adults and those high in autistic traits at making face-to-face line-of-sight judgements? Autism, 24 (6), 1482-1493.

McNeill, A., Lewis, R., & Freeth, M. (2020) Views of adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome on reproductive choices. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A

Leedham, A., Thompson, A., Smith, R., & Freeth, M. (2020). 'I was exhausted trying to figure it out': The experiences of females receiving an autism diagnosis in middle to late adulthood. Autism 24(1), 135-146

Leedham, A., Thompson, A., & Freeth, M. (2020) A thematic synthesis of siblings' lived experiences of autism: Distress, responsibilities, compassion and connection. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 97, 103457

Lane, C., Robinson, L., & Freeth, M. (2020). Autistic traits and cognitive abilities associated with two molecular causes of Silver-Russell syndrome Journal of Abnormal Psychology 129(3), 312-319.

Pirrone, A., Johnson, I., Stafford, T. & Milne, E. (2020). A diffusion model decomposition of orientation discrimination in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. European Journal of Developmental Psychology 17(2), 213-230

Al-Jawahiri, R., Jones, M., & Milne, E. (2019). Atypical neural variability in carriers of 16p11.2 copy number variants Autism Research, 12(9), 1322-1333

Milne, E., Gomez, R., Giannadou, A., & Jones, M. (2019). Atypical EEG in autism spectrum disorder: Comparing a dimensional and a categorical approach. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 128(5), 442-452

Lane, C., & Freeth, M. (2019). Sotos syndrome In O. Binda (Ed), Chromatin Signaling and Neurological Disorders.(pp.219-234) Academic Press: ISBN: 978-0-12-813796-3

Milne, E., Dunn, S., Zhao, C., & Jones, M. (2019). Altered neural dynamics in people who report spontaneous out of body experiences Cortex 111, 87 - 99

Lane, C., van Herwegen, J., & Freeth, M. (2019). Exploring the approximate number system in Sotos syndrome: Insights from a dot comparison task Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63(8), 917-925

Lane, C., van Herwegen, J., & Freeth, M. (2019). Parent-reported communication abilities of children with Sotos syndrome: Evidence from the Children's Communication Checklist-2. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(4), 1475-1483

Treweek, C., Wood, C., Martin, J., & Freeth, M. (2019). Autistic people's perspectives on stereotypes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Autism 23(3), 759-769

Lane, C., Milne, E., & Freeth, M. (2019). The Cognitive Profile of Sotos Syndrome. Journal of Neuropsychology, 13(2), 240-252

Kelly, C., Morgan, G., Freeth, M., Siegal, M., & Matthews, D. (2019). The Understanding of Communicative Intentions in Children with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 24(3), 245-254

Simpson, J., Freeth, M., & Thwaites, K. (2019). Understanding Visual Engagement with Urban Street Edges along Non-Pedestrianised and Pedestrianised Streets Using Mobile Eye-Tracking Sustainability, 11(15), 4251

Simpson, J., Freeth, M., & Thwaites, K. (2019). Visual engagement with urban street edges: insights using mobile eye-tracking. Journal of Urbanism, 12(3), 259-278

Freeth, M., & Bugembe, P. (2019). Social partner gaze direction and conversational phase; factors affecting social attention during face-to-face conversations in autistic adults?. Autism 23(2) 503-513

Milne, E., Dunn, S., Zhao, C., & Jones, M. (2019). Altered neural dynamics in people who report spontaneous out of body experiences. Cortex, 111, 87 - 99.

Balasubramanian, M., Fratzl-Zelman, N., O'Sullivan, R., Bull, M., FA Peel, N., Pollitt, R. C., . . . Roschger, P. (2018) Novel PLS3 variants in X-linked osteoporosis: Exploring bone material properties. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 176 (7) 1578 - 1586

Pirrone, A., Wen, W., Li, S., Baker, D. H., & Milne, E. (2018). Autistic Traits in the Neurotypical Population do not Predict Increased Response Conservativeness in Perceptual Decision Making. Perception, 47(10-11), 1081-1096.

Kalfaoglu, C., Stafford, T., & Milne, E. (2018). Frontal theta band oscillations predict error correction and posterror slowing in typing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 44(1), 69.

Balasubramanian, M., Jones, R., Milne, E., Marshall, C., Arundel, P., Smith, K., & Bishop, N. J. (2018). Autism and heritable bone fragility: A true association? Bone Reports, 8, 156-162.

Morgan, E., Freeth, M., & Smith, D. (2018). Mental State Attributions Mediate the Gaze Cueing Effect. Vision 2(1), 11. doi:10.3390/vision2010011

Dickinson, A., Gomez, R., Jones, M., Zemon, V., & Milne, E. (2018). Lateral inhibition in the autism spectrum: an SSVEP study of visual cortical lateral interactions. Neuropsychologia doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.018

Milne, E., Dickinson, A. & Smith, R. (2017). Adults with autism spectrum conditions experience increased levels of anomalous perception. PLoS ONE 12(5), e0177804.

Al-jawahiri, R. & Milne, E. (2017). Resources available for autism research in the big data era: a systematic review. PeerJ, 5, e2880-e2880.

Pirrone, A., Dickinson, A., Gomez, R., Stafford, T. & Milne, E. (2017)Understanding Perceptual Judgment in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Drift Diffusion Model. Neuropsychology,31(2),173-180.

Lane, C., Milne, E., & Freeth, M. (2017). Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Sotos Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(1), 135-143.

Bruyns-Haylett, M., Luo, J., Kennerley, A.J., Harris, S., Boorman, L., Milne, E., Vautrelle, N., Hayashi, Y., Whalley, B.J., Jones, M., Berwick, J., Riera, J. & Zheng, Y. (2017). The neurogenesis of P1 and N1: a concurrent EEG/LFP study. NeuroImage, 146(1),575-588.

Denis, D., Rowe, R., Williams, A.M. & Milne, E. (2017). The role of cortical sensorimotor oscillations in action anticipation. Neuroimage, 146, 1102-1114.

David, N., Schneider, T.R., Peiker, I., Al-Jawahiri, R., Engel, A.K., & Milne, E. (2016). Variability of cortical oscillation patterns: a possible endophenotype in autism spectrum disorders? Nueroscience & Biobehavioural Reviews,

Wood, C., & Freeth, M. (2016). Students' stereotypes of autism. Journal of Educational Issues, 2(2), 131-140.

Dickinson, A., Jones, M. & Milne, E. (2016). Measuring neural excitation and inhibition in autism: Different approaches, different findings and different interpretations. Brain Research, 1648, 277-289.

Dickinson, A., Bruyns-Haylett, M., Smith R., Jones, M. & Milne, E. (2016). Superior orientation discrimination and increased peak gamma frequency in autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(3), 412-422. 

Heaton, T.J., & Freeth, M. (2016). Reduced visual exploration when viewing photographic scenes in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(3), 399-411. 

Dunn, S., Freeth, M., Milne, E. (2016). Electrophysiological Evidence of Atypical Spatial Attention in Those with a High Level of Self-reported Autistic Traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental disorders, 46(6), 2199-2210.

Lane, C., Milne, E., Freeth, M. (2016). Cognition and Behaviour in Sotos Syndrome: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0149189

Vabalas, A. and Freeth, M. (2016). Patterns of Eye Movements in Face to Face Conversation are Associated with Autistic Traits: Evidence from a Student Sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(1), 305-314.

Jang, J., Jones, M., Milne, E., Wilson, D., & Lee, K. H. (2016). Contingent negative variation (CNV) associated with sensorimotor timing error correction. NeuroImage, 127, 58-66.

Peiker, I., Schneider, T. R., Milne, E., Schottle, D., Vogeley, K., Munchau, A., ... & David, N. (2015). Stronger Neural Modulation by Visual Motion Intensity in Autism Spectrum Disorders. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0132531.

Dickinson, A., Bruyns-Haylett, M., Jones, M., & Milne, E. (2015). Increased peak gamma frequency in individuals with higher levels of autistic traits. European Journal of Neuroscience, 41(8), 1095-1101.

Simmons, D and Milne, E. (2015) Response to Davis and Plaisted-Grant: Low or high endogenous neural noise in autism spectrum disorder? Autism

Dickinson, A and Milne, E. (2014) Enhanced and impaired sensory discrimination in autism. Journal of Neurophysiology, 112(6), 1599-1599.

David, N., Engel, A. K., Schultz, J., Milne, E., Schunke, O., Münchau, A., . . . Vogeley, K. (2014). Right temporoparietal gray matter predicts accuracy of social perception in the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1433-1446.

Dickinson, A., Jones, M., & Milne, E. (2014). Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits. J Autism Dev Disord.

Rosas-Martinez, L., Milne, E., & Zheng, Y. (2013). Multidimensional EEG analysis reveals a transient cortical network in early visual processing. PERCEPTION, 42, 60.

Milne, E., Dunn, S., Freeth, M., & Rosas-Martinez, L. (2013) Visual search performance is predicted by the degree to which selective attention to features modulates the ERP between 350 and 600 ms Neuropsychologia, 51(6) 1109-1118

Freeth, M., Ramachandran, R., Sheppard, E., & Milne, E. (2013) A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Autistic Traits in the UK, India and Malaysia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(11) 2569-2583

Freeth, M., Foulsham, T., & Kingstone, A. (2013) What Affects Social Attention? Social Presence, Eye Contact and Autistic Traits.PLoS ONE 8(1): e53286. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053286.

Milne, E., Scope, A., Griffiths, H., Codina, C. & Buckley, D. (2013) Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Sensitivity in the Peripheral Visual Field of Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Freeth, M., Bullock, T., & Milne, E. (2012). The distribution of and relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety in a UK student population. Autism. doi: 10.1177/1362361312445511

Annaz, D., Coleman, M., Swettenham, J., Campbell, R., & Milne, E. (2012). Young children with autism spectrum disorder do not preferentially attend to biological motion. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(3), 401-408.

Koh, H.C. and Milne, E. (2012). Evidence for a cultural influence on Field-Independence in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(2) 181 - 190.

Risko, E., Laidlaw, K., Freeth, M., Foulsham, T., & Kingstone, A. (2012). Social attention with real versus reel stimuli: toward an empirical approach to concerns about ecological validity Frontiers in Human Neuroscience doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00143

Milne, E. (2011). Increased intra-participant variability in children with autistic spectrum disorder: Evidence from single trial analyses of evoked EEG. . Frontiers in Psychology, 2.

Freeth, M., Foulsham, T., & Chapman, P. (2011). The influence of visual saliency on fixation patterns in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Neuropsychologia, 49(1),156-160.

Freeth, M., Ropar, D., Mitchell, P., Chapman, P., & Loher, S. (2011). Brief Report: How Adolescents with ASD Process Social Information in Complex Scenes. Combining Evidence from Eye Movements and Verbal Descriptions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(3), 364-371.

Freeth, M., Ropar, D., Chapman, P., & Mitchell, P. (2010). The eye gaze direction of an observed person can bias perception, memory, and attention in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105(1-2), 20-37.

Koh, H. C., Milne, E. & Dobkins, K. (2010) Contrast sensitivity for motion detection and direction discrimination in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and their siblings. Neuropsychologia, 48(14), 4046 - 4056.

Freeth, M., Chapman, P., Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (2010). Freeth, M., Chapman, P., Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (2010). Do gaze cues in complex scenes capture and direct the attention of high functioning adolescents with ASD? Evidence from eye-tracking . Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(5), 534-547.

Koh, H. C., Milne, E. & Dobkins, K. (2010) Contrast Sensitivity in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 978 - 987

Taylor, N., Isaac, C. & Milne, E. (2010). A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1403 - 1411

Aljuhanay A., Milne, E., Burt, M. & Pascalis, O. (2010) Asymmetry in face processing during childhood measured with Chimeric faces. Laterality, 15, 439 - 450

Annaz, D ., Remington, A., Milne, E., Coleman, M., Campbell, R., Thomas, M., & Swettenham, J. (in press). Atypical Development of Motion Processing Trajectories in Children with Autism. Developmental Science, 13, 826 - 838

Milne, E. & Szczerbinski, M. (2009) Global and local perceptual style, field-independence and central coherence: An attempt at concept validation. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 5, 1- 26.

Milne, E., Griffiths, H., Buckley, D. & Scope, A. (2009) Vision in children with autistic spectrum disorder: Evidence for reduced convergence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 965 – 975.

Smith, H. & Milne, E. (2009) Reduced change blindness suggests enhanced attention to detail in individuals with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 300 – 306.
Here are a couple of video clips from the paradigm used in this research (both of which contain a continuity error).

Milne, E., Scope, A., Pascalis, O., Buckley, D., & Makeig, S. (2009) Independent Component Analysis reveals atypical EEG activity during visual perception in individuals with autism. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 22 – 30.

Milne, E. and Scope, A. (2008) Are children with autistic spectrum disorders susceptible to contour illusions? British Journal of Developmental Psychology 26, 91-102. 

Beck, S.R., Robinson, E.J., Freeth, M.M., (2008). Can children resist making interpretations when uncertain? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 99(4), 252-270.

Milne, E. and Griffiths, H. J. (2007) Visual Perception and Visual Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review. British and Irish Orthoptics Journal 4, 15-20.

Drew, A., Baird, G., Taylor, E., Milne, E. and Charman, T. (2007) Developmental change in non-verbal communication in toddlers with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37, 648-666. 

Milne, E., White, S., Campbell, R., Swettenham, J., Hansen, P. and Ramus, F. (2006) Motion and form coherence in autistic spectrum disorder: Relationship to motor control and 2:4 digit ratio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36, 225-237.

White, S., Milne, E., Rosen, S., Hansen, P., Swettenham, J., Frith, U. and Ramus, F. (2006) The role of sensorimotor processing in dyslexia: a multiple case study of dyslexic children. Developmental Science 9, 237-269. 

White, S., Frith, U., Milne, E., Rosen, S., Swettenham, J. and Ramus, F. (2006) A double dissociation between sensorimotor impairments and reading disability: A comparison of autistic and dyslexic children. Cognitive Neuropsychology 23, 748-761.

Milne, E., Swettenham, J. and Campbell, R. (2005) Motion perception and autistic spectrum disorder. A review. Current Psychology of Cognition 23, 4-34. 
See also a list of the commentaries here, and our reply to the commentaries here. If you would like access to a particular commentary, please e-mail the authors concerned.

Mohammed, T., Campbell, R., MacSweeney, M., Milne, E. and Coleman, M. (2005) Speechreading skill and visual movement sensitivity are related in deaf speechreaders. Perception 34, 205 - 216. 

Sweetenham, J., Condie, S., Campbell, R., Milne, E. and Coleman, M. (2003) Does the perception of moving eyes trigger reflexive visual orienting in autism? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B 358, 325 - 334. 

Dimitrov, M., Nakic, M., Elpern-Waxman, J., Granetz, J., O’Grady, J., Phipps, M., Milne, E, Logan, G.D., Hasher, L. & Grafman, J. (2003) Inhibitory attentional control in patients with frontal lobe damage Brain and Cognition, 52, 258 – 270.

Milne, E., Swettenham, J., Hansen, P., Campbell, R., Jeffries, H. and Plaisted, K. (2002) High Motion Coherence Thresholds in Children with Autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43, 255 - 264. 

Milne, E. and Grafman, J. (2001) Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions in Humans Eliminate Implicit Gender Stereotyping. Journal of Neuroscience 21, RC150(1-6).